History and Biography of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was born on December 25, 1861, at Allahabad. He belonged to a literate but poor financially family. He was the founder of Banaras Hindu University. The education of Madan Mohan Malaviya started at the age of 5. In 1879, He had completed his matriculation. He also completed law education but the earnest eagerness of Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya to serve the country in his legal profession. He admitted Muir Central College. In 1884, he had graduated from the Calcutta University. In his old school, He was selected as a teacher on Rs. 40 a month and soon became famous among his students. In 1886, he attended 2nd Congress session held in Calcutta at that time there were no rules preventing government servants. He had given a speech in the audience spell-bound. A. 0. He was provided the editorship of the Hindi weekly in The Hindustan newspaper after his came back from Calcutta. And Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya also edited another weekly for Indian Union. He wanted to devote totally himself to nation service. In 1891, Madan studied law and passed LL.B. examination with good marks.
In 1909, 1918, 1932 and 1933, he was elected President of Congress. In 1906, When Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya laid the foundation of Hindu Mahasabha; various nationalists raised eyebrows over him. In 1931, Madan was invited for Round Table Conference.
In 1893, He became a High Court Vakil. In 1906, Madan was a powerful supporter of Congress. Hindu Mahasabha was founded with his supporters, to oppose not only "divide and rule" policy of the British Governmentthe just but claims of the Muslim community. Generally, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya always gave importance to public work rather than his legal work. In 1909, he withdrew from the legal job but in 1922 Madan made an exception in respect to the appeal of around two hundred persons condemned to death in association with the Chauri Chaura riots on account of which Gandhi Ji saved 153 accused from the gallows to suspend the civil disobedience movement.
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya’s work for public made him realize to begin newspapers especially in Hindi, for the public education. In 1907, He began the Abhyudaya as a Hindi weekly and in 1915 he made it a daily. In 1910, He began the Maryada a Hindi monthly and in 1921 he started another Hindi monthly. In October 1909, Madan had become the Leader of English daily. In The Hindustan Times (1924 to 1946) he was the Chairman of the Board of Directors
As a result of his good work as Senior Vice-Chairman of the Allahabad Municipality, in 1902 he had elected to the Provincial Legislative Council. In 1909, the independence and ability which remarked his speeches in the Council led to his election to this Council, of which Madan became one of the leading members of team. In the debates, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya participated on essential resolutions, for instance nationalisation of railways, compulsory and free primary education, the limitation of recruitment of indentured labour of India to the British colonies and many more. In the industrial development of the country Madan had taken much interest and so in 1916 he had appointed as a member of the Indian Industrial Commission.
He was a politician notable and Indian educationist for his role in independence movement of India. He also called a 'Mahamana'. The Benares Hindu University betrays the much interest that he had taken in the education of the spirit and the mind. He had taken much interest in social matters. Madan considered in the caste system 'Varnashrama Dharma'. He had prepared to manage himself to social changes to a limited extent in the nation. He also supported the uplifting Hindu women position. In order to non-cooperation movement which was begun by Gandhi Ji in 1920. In 1921, he had not looked election to the Indian Legislative Assembly. From 1924 to April 1930 Madan was a member of the Indian Legislative Assembly. After the salt Satyagraha begun by Gandhi he resigned shortly and took part in salt Satyagraha. He assisted the demand in order to complete Dominion Status to India put forward by Nehru. In 1931, Madan was invited for Round Table Conference, but Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya inevitably came back dissatisfied with the behavior of the Government of British.
His father Pt Baijnath and grandfather Pt Premdhar were Sanskrit scholars. His father was also an amazing Kathavacak. After initial training in Sanskrit, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya admitted Saraswati School. In 1878, He had married to Kumari Devi. His wife belonged to Mirzapur. In 1884, Pandit passed B.A. examination from Muir Central College. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya had worked for the eradication of social barriers and caste barrier in temples. He is considered to have undergone rejuvenation due to his Social works in Dalit areas. Initially, Sri Gaud Brahmins had expelled Mohan Malaviya but after knowing their mistakes the elite people has taken back him in Shi Gaud Brahmin Samaj.
Hindu Religion and Ideals:
In the tenets of Hindu Dharma Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya’s firm grounding led him to powerful beliefs on right expression, right thinking, right actions and right attitude in every activity.
- In 1906, Managing a conference of 'Sanatana Dharma Mahasabha'
- In 1880, He had worked as the Secretary of 'Prayaga Hindu Samaj'
- Started in 1906 by Pt Durgadutt Sharma, he was the President of the Education Committee for 10 years of 'Rishikul Brahmacharya Ashram'.
- Lectures and Association on Indian and Hinduism Culture in ‘Bharat Dharma Mahamandal’ from 1887 to 1902
In 1884, after the job of a teacher, Madan had passed LLB examination. Initially, in 1891 Madan practiced in the District court and from 1893 he started practice in the High Court. Soon Madan became an expert Civil Lawyer. During his 50th birthday Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya had taken decision to leave his roaring practice and he retired in 1913 to serve the nation. According to Gopala Krishna Gokhale the scarification of Madan is real one. He born in a financially poor family but he began earning 1000 per month. He tasted wealth and luxury but providing heed to the call of the country, renouncing all Pandit again embraced poverty.
In 1886, during the second Congress Session in Calcutta held, Raja Rampal Singh was totally impressed by the personality and the speech of Madan. In July 1887, Raja Rampal Singh requested him to edit the Hindi daily ‘Hindustan’. At that time he was young, Malaviyaji’s earlier speeches and writings supported him obtain the journalist character. In 1883-84, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya’s poems (sawaiyas) published in ‘Harischandra Chandrika’ magazine. Madan had worked in the editorial of Hindi daily ‘Hindustan’ from 1887 to 1889. In 1908, He had started work in English daily by help of Motilal Nehru ‘Leader’ When the English Government tried to bring in the Newspaper Act and Press Act, he started a campaign against Newspaper Act and Press Act and in Allahabad he called an All India Conference. Then he realized the requirement of an English Newspaper to make the campaign more strong across the country. Unfortunately, the great soul of India left this world on November 12, 1946.
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